Graph-based Transforms for Predictive Light Field Compression based on Super-Pixels

M. Rizkallah, X. Su, T. Maugey, C. Guillemot,

"Graph-based Transforms for Predictive Light Field Compression based on Super-Pixels", IEEE International Conference on Acoustic, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Calgary, 15-20 Apr. 2018.(pdf)[change]


In this paper, we explore the use of graph-based transforms to capture correlation in light fields. We consider a scheme in which view synthesis is used as a first step to exploit inter-view correlation. Local graph-based transforms (GT) are then considered for energy compaction of the residue signals. The structure of the local graphs is derived from a coherent super-pixel over-segmentation of the different views. The GT is computed and applied in a separable manner with a first spatial unweighted transform followed by an inter-view GT. For the inter-view GT, both unweighted and weighted GT have been considered. The use of separable instead of non separable transforms allows us to limit the complexity inherent to the computation of the basis functions. A dedicated simple coding scheme is then described for the proposed GT based light field decomposition. Experimental results show a significant improvement with our method compared to the CNN view synthesis method and to the HEVC direct coding of the light field views [3].


We test our GBR on four Real Light Fields [ref] (9x9 views of 536x376 pixels): Flower1, Flower2, Cars and Rock.

Light Field Predictive Coding Scheme

                                              Fig.2. Proposed encoder

Fig. 2 depicts the proposed coding scheme. Let LF={Iu,v} denote a light field, where u=1,...,U and v=1,...,V are the view indices. Four views at the corners LFcor={I1,1 ,I1,V ,IU,1 ,IU,V} are encoded using HEVC-Inter and used to synthesize the whole light field with the CNN based synthesis method [1], as shown in Fig. 2 (red arrows). To improve the quality of the synthesized light field, the residuals between the synthesized and original views are encoded using graph transforms, (see Fig. 2, blue arrows). The residuals of all the views but the 4 corner views LF\LFcor are considered here. These residual signals are grouped into super-pixels using the SLIC algorithm [2], then graph transforms are applied on each super-pixel followed by quantization and entropy coding. At the decoder, the decompressed residuals are added to the synthesized light field to obtain the final decompressed light field.

Graph-based Transforms and Coding

Thanks to the superpixel ability to adhere to image borders, the sub-aperture residual images are subdivided into uniform regions where the residual signal is supposed to be smooth. Fig. 3(c) shows the luminance values of a cropped region of the residues for a subset of views of the Flower 1 dataset. Although the disparity is not taken into account, the signals in super-pixels which are co-located across the views are correlated for light fields with narrow baselines. In order to capture these correlations, we use a separable Graph Transform comprising a local super-pixel based spatial GT followed by a local angular GT.

First Spatial GT:

We first construct local spatial graphs inside each super-pixel for each view. We then use the Laplacians of the graphs to define a first spatial Graph transform. Since the Laplacian is positive semi-definite, it has a complete set of eigenvectors as:

Using the matrix U where rows are eigenvectors, the transformed coefficients vector is defined in [4] as:

The inverse graph Fourier transform is then given by:

Second angular GT:

In order to capture inter-view dependencies and compact the energy into fewer coefficients, we perform a second graph based transform. Since we have the same number of pixels for a specific super-pixel in all the views, we then deal with a graph made of Nv vertices corresponding to the views to be coded. Edges are drawn between each node and its direct four neighbors. We examine two different cases where the weights are either fixed to 1 or learned from a training set of spatial transformed coefficients [5]. We refer to those two versions as unweighted GT (uGT) and weighted GT (wGT).

(a) Original view of Flower1

(b) Superpixel segmentation

(c) Coherent superpixels across views

(d) Illustration of the two graphs drawn to compute separable
graph based transforms

                                                       Fig. 3 Super-pixels and Graph Transforms

Coding of transform coefficients:

At the end of those two transform stages, coefficients are grouped into a three-dimensional array R where R(iSP,ibd,v) is the vth transformed coefficient of the band ibdfor the superpixel iSP. Using the observations on all the superpixels in a training dataset, we can find the best ordering for quantization. We first sort the variances of coefficients with enough observations in decreasing order. We then split them into 64 classes assigning to each class a quantization index in the range 1 to 64. All the remaining coefficients with less observations will be considered in the last group. We use the zigzag ordering of the JPEG quantization matrix to assign the quantization step size for each. The quantized coefficients are further coded using an arithmetic coder.


We first evaluate the energy compaction of the transformed coefficients for the three transforms (only spatial GT, spatial + unweighted angular GT, spatial + weighted angular GT) to show the utility of exploring inter-view correlation. Results for the four datasets are shown in the Fig. 4. Higher energy compaction is observed with the second angular transform compared with only applying the spatial transform, with a slight improvement for the wGT. This shows the utility of exploring the inter-view correlations between residues in different views and adapting the graph weights for that purpose compared to only performing local spatial transforms.

Energy compaction


Rate-distortion Evaluation

For the four datasets, our Graph based transform approaches defined by CNN+uGT and CNN+wGT slightly outperform CNN learning based scheme at low bitrate and bring a small improvement to the HEVC based coding of the residues. For higher bitrates, the compression performance is further enhanced compared to CNN, and almost reaching CNN+HEVC performance. At low to middle bitrates, both graph-based transform schemes outperform direct use of HEVC inter coding as we can also observe after computing the bjontegaard metric in Table I.




[1] N. K. Kalantari, T.-C. Wang, and R. Ramamoorthi. Learning-based view synthesis for light field cameras. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH Asia 2016), 35(6), 2016

[2] R. Achanta, A. Shaji, Kevin K. Smith, A. Lucchi, P. Fua, and S. Susstrunk. SLIC Superpixels Compared to State-of-the-Art Superpixel Methods. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.

[3] M. Rizkallah, T. Maugey, C. Yaacoub, and C. Guillemot. Impact of light field compression on focus stack and extended focus images. In 24th European Signal Processing Conf. (EUSIPCO), pages 898–902, Aug. 2016.

 [4] David I Shuman, Sunil K Narang, Pascal Frossard, Antonio Ortega, and Pierre Vandergheynst, “The emerging field of signal processing on graphs: Extending high-dimensional data analysis to networks and other irregular domains,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 83–98, 2013.

 [5] H. E. Egilmez, E. Pavez, and A. Ortega. Graph learning from data under laplacian and structural constraints. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 11(6):825–841, Sept 2017.